Photographs from the scene showed the plane, which departed from the Turkish capital of Ankara on Saturday evening, stuck in the frozen mud.
Some 162 passengers and crew were on board the aircraft when it overshot the runway and nosedived downhill.
Pictures from the site showed the plane's nose close to the water's edge.More news: Makar Sankranti 2018: Puja timings, rituals and significance of this harvest festival
They were evacuated safely by emergency services and no one was hurt.
Trabzon Governor Yucel Yavuz said a crisis desk had been set up after the accident.
The cause of the incident was not known and an investigation is under way.More news: Alexis signing would be on par with Cantona for Man United
One of the passengers, Fatma Gordu, told Turkish state-run news agency Anadolu the crash sparked panic on board the flight.
According to reports the aircraft flying from Ankara to Trabzon went off the tarmac after landing and came to a halt just short of the edge of the sea.More news: Burning Iranian oil tanker sinks in Japanese waters
Passengers panicked. "We tilted to the side, the front was down while the plane's rear was up".
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