The 34-year-old, whose winning run in the 5,000m at Olympics and world finals stretched back to 2011, fought desperately to claw back the deficit in the finishing straight but Edris held on to win in 13min 32.79sec.
The 27-year-old clocked 13 minute 35.69 second, almost one second better than his earlier personal best of 13:36.62, in the first round heat number one but he ended up at the 15th spot in a top class field, which included defending champion Mo Farah of Great Britain, to bow out of the championships.
In the dying meters, Farah shot down the inside to overhaul American Paul Chelimo and clock 13:33.22.
Mo Farah had to settle for silver medal in the final race of his track career.More news: Biggest Threat to Trump's Agenda Comes from Fellow Republicans
The Somalia-born runner will be joined in championship track retirement by Usain Bolt who missed out in the 100m but IAAF President Seb Coe insists the sport can survive without them.
"To be honest with you it takes so much out of me".
It looked at one point as if Farah may not even make the podium but he bravely challenged up the inside in the straight and managed to overhaul two of his rivals.
"I have a few more races on the track and then I will take a short break and then this chapter of my life is closed".More news: US Muslim Wins Payout After Hijab 'Forcibly Removed' by Police
"They had the game plan: one of them was going to sacrifice themselves".
But after the race, almost all of the attention went to Farah. "It didn't quite hit home until I took a few moments to myself where I realised this is it".
"Tactically, I was trying to cover every move", said Farah, after being consoled by his wife and four children at trackside.
Everyone had expected the British distance runner to win gold but he was beaten by Muktar Edris of Ethiopia.More news: Anna Paquin jokes about BBC breast broadcast
"It was close but not close enough but when I reflect I've got to be happy with that in my first-ever high jump final", she said.
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