Surrey opener Stoneman, who has scored three centuries and averages 59.14 in this season's County Championship, has been called up at the expense of Keaton Jennings after he struggled against South Africa, scoring just 127 runs in eight innings.
England also called up 20-year-old Hampshire leg-spinner Mason Crane for the first time in the longest format after he made his Twenty20 worldwide debut in June.
Stoneman replaces Keaton Jennings as Alastair Cook's opening partner.
By the time England wrapped up a 3-1 series victory over South Africa in Joe Root's opening campaign as Test captain, there were few defenders of Jennings remaining.More news: 'Knights of the Frozen Throne' 'Hearthstone' Expansion is Live!
And while his exclusion does not signal the end of the 25-year-old's Test career, it means he will more than likely not make the trip to Australia this winter.
Paceman Chris Woakes has recovered fully from the side strain he suffered during the Champions Trophy and returned to the squad in place of Steven Finn.
"Selectors would like to offer their congratulations to Mark Stoneman and Mason Crane who thoroughly deserve their opportunity in the squad", said England selector James Whitaker in an England and Wales Cricket Board statement.
"Chris Woakes has proved his fitness and returns to the squad having missed most of the summer through injury".More news: Rite Aid Corporation (NYSE:RAD) Experiences Heavier than Usual Trading Volume
Crane's call-up for Edgbaston was largely unexpected after an indifferent season with Hampshire although the 20-year-old made a positive impression in England's Twenty20 series against South Africa in June.
Surrey opener Stoneman is now positioned second in the leading run-scorer in this season of County Championship Division One with 828 runs from nine matches at an average close to 60 and a highest score of 197 while Hampshire leg-spinner Crane has 16 wickets from five games this season.
SQUAD: Alastair Cook (Essex), Mark Stoneman (Surrey), Tom Westley (Essex), Joe Root (Yorkshire, capt), Dawid Malan (Middlesex), Ben Stokes (Durham), Jonny Bairstow (Yorkshire, wkt), Moeen Ali (Worcestershire), Toby Roland-Jones (Middlesex), Stuart Broad (Nottinghamshire), James Anderson (Lancashire), Chris Woakes (Warwickshire), Mason Crane (Hampshire).More news: Man City players happy with three at the back, says Kompany
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